Dosage Forms Pharmaceutics Notes

Dosage Forms

Did you Know Each medicine had its dosage form?

Drug + Additive Substances = Dosage Forms

What is Drug?
What is mean Drug?
What is a Drug's Easy Definition?
What is the Importance of Drugs?

Drug - In Pharmacy a drug may be defined as an agent or a product intended use in diagnosis mitigation, treatment cure, or Prevention of Disease in humans and animals.

What are drug additives?
Additive Substances may be non-drug compounds, lactose, maltose, sucrose, etc.

What is considered an additive?
Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavor or enhance its taste, appearance, or other qualities.

Types of Dosage Forms- Dosage forms are 3 types

Classification of Dosage form-
Classification Chart of "DOSAGE FORM"

  • Solid Dosage Form
  • Liquid Dosage Form
  • Semi-Solid Dosage Form

1. Solid Dosage Form-:

Solid dosage formulations are the most important dosage forms for pharmaceuticals, e.g. tablets, capsules, granules, powders, pills, and chewable.

1. Tablet:- Tablets are solid and unit dosage forms. in which drug substances are the main active drug substance along with excipients are Compressed into Tablets.

2. Capsule:- Capsule is a Solid Dosage form that is divided into two types.
1. Soft Gelatin Capsule
2. Hard Gelatin Capsule
in a capsule  Drug Substance is filled in the form of powder or granules are capsulated in a Gelatin shell.

3.Powder:- Powder is very Conventional and very rarely used nowadays in the solid dosage form. in which drug is administered in the form of Dustin powder, the powder is 2 types.
1. Surgical Powder - used in a body cavity.
2. Medical Powder - used for superficial skin.

4. Pills:- Pills are small Rounded Solid Dosage Form Containing medicament and are intended to be administered orally. medicament mixed with excipients to form of plastic mass is role into a pipe and cut into a number of pills. Pills are sometimes coated with varnish.

2. Liquid Dosage Form:-

Liquid dosage forms are prepared by dissolving the active drug substance in an aqueous or non- aqueous 
(e.g. glycerin, ether, alcohol) solvent b) By suspending the drug in an appropriate medium or c) By incorporating the drug substance into an oil or water phase. 
Ex: Suspension, Emulsion, Syrups, Elixirs.

Liquid Dosage Form are Two Types
1. Monophasic - monophasic is divided into 2 part
(A) External -ex: Liniments, Lotion, Gargles, Throat paint, eye lotion, mouthwash 
(B) Internal - ex: Syrup, Elixir,s Linctus, Drops.

2. Biphasic - Biphasic have 2 phase.
 ex: Emulsion

Difference Between Liniments and Lotion?

Monophasic (External)-: 
1.Liniments:- Liniment is a fluid that you rub into the skin to alleviate pain or relieve stiffness. Arthritis can be rubbed on the skin to relieve muscle pain and muscle stiffness. A lining is usually in the form of a thin liquid applied to the skin.

2.Lotion:- The lotion is a low-viscosity topical preparation intended to apply to the skin. In contrast, creams and gels have a higher viscosity, usually due to reduced water content. The outer skin is applied with bare hands, with a brush, with a clean cloth or with cotton.

Difference Between Gargles and Mouthwash?

 Gargles:- The larynx is an aqueous solution that is used to prevent or treat throat infections.

Mouthwash:- Mouthwashes are aqueous solutions with a pleasant taste and odor used to make clean and deodorize the buccal cavity.

Difference Between Syrup and Elixirs?

1. Syrup:- Syrups are a concentrated solution of sugar mixed in water or other aqueous liquid. In medical terminology, medicinal syrups or syrups are nearly saturated solutions of sugar in water in which medicinal substances or drugs are dissolved. 
 Basically, it is an oral suspension in liquid form. The medical syrup or pharmaceutical syrup is actually used as a vehicle for medicine. It is usually used as a flavored vehicle for drugs. Syrups should be kept closely tight in a cool, dry place after use in order to preserve them. Medicinal syrups are widely consumed as children medicines, though medicated syrups for adults are also available.

2.Elixirs:- This combination medication(elixirs as clear, sweetened hydro alcohol liquids intended for oral use containing flavoring substances or active medicinal agents. Their primary solvents are alcohol and water, with glycerin, sorbitol, and syrup sometimes as an additional solvent and/or sweetening agents.) is used to temporarily relieve symptoms caused by the common cold, flu, allergies, or other breathing illnesses (such as sinusitis, bronchitis).

Difference Between Emulsion and Suspension?

 1. Emulsion:- An emulsion is a colloid of two or more immiscible liquids where one liquid contains a dispersion of the other liquids. In other words, an emulsion is a special type of mixture made by combining two liquids that normally don't mix. The word emulsion comes from the Latin word meaning "to milk" (milk is one example of an emulsion of fat and water). The process of turning a liquid mixture into an emulsion is called emulsification.

Emulsion is 2types

1) Oil in water (O / W):-

In this type of emulsion, the oil will be the dispersed phase and water will be the dispersion medium. The best example for o / w emulsion is milk. In milk, the fat globules (which act as the dispersed phase) are suspended in water (which acts as the dispersion medium)

2) Water in oil (w / o):-

In this type, water will be the dispersed phase and oil will be the dispersion medium. Margarine (a spread used for flavoring, baking, and working) is an example of water in oil emulsion.

Dosage form
Oil is more dense than alcohol, but less dense than water.

2.Suspension:- Suspension:- the suspension are the biphasic liquid dosage form of medicament               

- in which finely divided solid particle are dispersed in a liquid particle or semi-solid vehicle 
- the solid particles act as disperse phase and liquid vehicles act as the continuous phase
- they are also used for external application 

suspension classified four main classes according to pharmaceutical use:-

1. Oral suspension
2. parenteral suspension 
3. ophthalmic suspension 
4. suspension for external use

1. Oral Suspension:- these suspensions are to be consumed by the patient by oral route
- oral suspension generally contain flavoring and sweetening agents to mask the bitter taste of the drug
 example:- chloramphenicol palmitate suspension is prepared to mask the bitter taste of the chloramphenicol

2. Ophthalmic Suspension:- these are not commonly used as compared to eyes drops 
- these are prepared only is those cases. when the drug is insoluble in the desired solvent or unstable in liquid form
- it should be non-irritant to the eyes 
- these suspensions should be isotonic having desired viscosity and sterilized

3. Parenteral Suspension:- these suspensions which are administered by the parenteral route is called parenteral suspension
- the particle size of the drug can be easily pass through the needle of the syringe
- these suspensions should be sterilized

4. External Uses:- 

A] these suspensions are meant for external use 
example lotions, ear drops, etc. 

B] these suspensions contain very small particles to avoid grittiness 

C] all suspension should be packed in containers

D] the oral suspension should be packed in wide-mouth bottles

E] the suspension should be stored tight container protected from freezing, excessive heat, and light.

3.Semi-Solid Dosage Form:- 

The semi-Solid Dosage form is mainly meant to apply external applications.
e.g. Ointment, Creams, Pastes, Jelly, Suppositories, Pessaries.

Semi-Solid Dosage form are two types
1.External:- which is used on the external part of the body

2.Internal:- which is used in the internal parts of the body.

Difference Between Ointment And Cream?

1.Ointment:- Ointment is Semi-Solid preparation meant for application to the skin or mucous membrane. they may contain a suitable antimicrobial preservative.
Ointment Which used for the eye called Ophthalmic Ointment these Ointments are sterile and free from irritation.
2.Cream:- These are Viscous semi-solid Emulsion. which are meant for external use.
these are two types of Aqueous and oily cream.
Creams Should be store and supplied in a well-closed container, which Prevents Evaporation.

Difference Between Suppositories and Pessaries?

1.Suppositories:- These are semi-solid dosage form preparation meant for insertion into body cavities other than the mouth. Suppositories are melt in the body or room temperature.these are available in different shape sizes and weights.
Suppositories are used to produce local systemic and mechanical action.

Types Of Suppositories:-
In the market there are too many types of Suppositories are available but few are Mention here.
a. Rectal Suppositories for adults weigh 2 gm and are torpedo shape.
Children's suppositories weigh about 1 gm.

b. Vaginal Suppositories or Pessaries weigh about 3-
5gm and are molded in the globular or oviform shape
or compressed on a tablet press into conical

  • Can exert a local effect on rectal mucosa.
  • Used to promote evacuation of bowel.
  • Avoid any gastrointestinal irritation.
  • Can be used in unconscious patients (e.g. during fitting).
  • Can be used for the systemic absorption of drugs and avoid the first-pass metabolism.
  • Babies or old people who cannot swallow oral medication.
  • Postoperative people who cannot be administered oral medication.
  • People suffering from severe nausea or vomiting.


  • The problem of patient acceptability.
  • Suppositories are not suitable for patients suffering from diarrhea.
  • In some cases, the total amount of the drug must be given will be either too irritating or in a greater amount than reasonably can be placed into a suppository.
  • Incomplete absorption may be obtained because a suppository usually promotes evacuation of the bowel.

2.Pessaries:- Pessaries are solid, single-dose preparations.
They have various shapes, usually ovoid, with a volume and consistency suitable for insertion into the vagina. They contain one or more active substances dispersed or dissolved in a suitable base that may be soluble or dispersible in water or may melt at body temperature.
Excipients such as diluents, adsorbents, surface-active agents, lubricants, antimicrobial preservatives, and coloring matter, authorized by the competent authority, may be added, if necessary.

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